Object-oriented programming, is a framework for programming that emphasises the idea of objects as containers for data and functions. 

It simplifies and organises code development by breaking down complicated issues into smaller, simpler to handle components. 

Because of its low complexity, reusability, and flexibility, OOP is now the accepted norm for the creation of software. 

In this perspective, there are five core OOPs concepts in C++ that serve as the basis for programming with objects. Encapsulation, polymorphism, inheritance, level of abstraction, and classes are examples of these ideas. 


All of these ideas have significance for creating durable and scalable applications for software, and knowing them all is the first step towards becoming an expert OOP developer. 

In this post, we will look at these notions in depth and see how these operate in practice.

What is Object-Oriented Programming?

Object-oriented programming, is a theory of programming that emphasises the use of objects in order to represent physical elements such as individuals, places, and things. 

Object-oriented programming organises software around items, which are examples of classes that contain data and behaviour. 

Every item is distinct and has the ability to interact with other items using methods that describe their behaviour.

Encapsulation, polymorphism, inheritance, and abstractions are the four major OOPs concepts in C++. 

The encapsulation involves hiding internal features from other components and simply exposing a public user interface. 

Objects can inherit methods and properties from parental classes, which can help to decrease duplication of code.

 Objects can take on various forms depending on their context, thanks to polymorphism. Abstraction refers to breaking down large systems into less complex, easier to manage elements.

Over alternative programming concepts, like procedural code generation, object-oriented programming provides various advantages. 

It enables the creation of modular code that can be reused which is simple to upkeep and alter. It also makes it easier for developers to collaborate because components can be constructed and verified individually before they are incorporated into a bigger system.


The object-oriented design is a crucial concept for any prospective software engineer to comprehend because it is widely utilized in cutting-edge programming languages like Python, Java, or C++ language.

With that said, check out the 5 OOPs concepts in C++ in the next segment of the blog.

What are the 5 OOPs concepts?

Object-oriented programming is a paradigm for programming based on the idea of items, which are examples of categories that contain data and behaviour. These are five fundamental OOP ideas:

1. Encapsulation

Encapsulation is a key notion in object-oriented software development (OOP) that refers to the grouping of information as well as the processes (or functions) which alter the information into a single component known as a class. 

The use of this method helps maintain a class's execution information hidden from other sections of the software by exposing only an external interface to communicate with the class itself.

The encapsulation in other terms, is a method of protecting data within an object and restricting access to information to those outside the context of the class. 

It provides greater control over the information by prohibiting other portions of the software from immediately changing it. Rather, the class offers an array of methods for manipulating or accessing data in an orderly manner.

OOPs facilitate modular structure and reduce complexity of code by enclosing data within the C++ code compiler. It additionally offers a means of ensuring confidentiality of information and preventing unanticipated modifications that could result in errors or defects.

2. Inheritance

Within OOPs concepts in C++, inheritance refers to the process of creating a new class, known to developers as the "subclass" and "derived class," through inheriting attributes and behaviours from a previous class, known as a "superclass" and "base object." 

The subclass receives all the characteristics of the superclass's functions and characteristics, however it can also add additional properties and methods or modify the acquired values.

Inheritance enables reusing code and abstractions by allowing subclasses to utilize the superclass's logic and functions without trying to replicate it. This can result in far more effective and accessible code, in addition to better software organisation and design.

3. Polymorphism 

Polymorphism is an OOPS paradigm which enables objects of various classes to have their properties treated as though they belong to the same superclass. It relates to an object's capacity to switch on numerous shapes or behaviours based on its situation.

Polymorphism enables you to design software that may interact with items of various categories in a generalised fashion without knowing the precise class that defines each object. Because your source code could be readily changed to operate with fresh classes that follow the exact same user interface it becomes more adaptable and useful.

There are two distinct kinds of polymorphism: compilation time polymorphism as well as runtime polymorphism. Overloading of functions and frameworks provide compilation time polymorphism, whereas inheritance while simulated functions enable runtime polymorphism.

Polymorphic behaviour is a fundamental idea in the field of object-oriented programming which allows for level of abstraction, encasing, and inheritance, resulting in more programmable, reusable, and manageable code.

4. Abstraction 

Abstraction is the method of breaking down complicated structures into components that are more manageable in size in order to make it easier to understand them. 

The application of abstract interfaces and classes within OOP allows for abstraction. The abstract classes provide an object's basic structure yet delegate details of implementation to its child classes. 

Interfaces specify an array of functions that an object must carry out but offer no information about its implementation. Abstraction improves code organisation while making it easier to alter and expand the framework.

5. Polymorphic Connection

A polymorphic connection is one that uses a single relationship to connect various kinds of items. 

This is frequently used when numerous sorts of items can be related to one entity yet the particular kind of object is uncertain in advance. In a blogging framework, for instance, a comment could be linked with a share, a photograph, or a video utilising a similar polymorphic relationship. 

This gives the code greater adaptability and makes it easy to create new kinds of relationships without modifying the old code.

Wrapping Up 

The five principles as discussed in the blog are critical for comprehending OOPs and are utilised to create massive and effective systems. 

Encapsulation, polymorphism, inheritance, detachment, and polymorphic connection all contribute to OOP programming within a C++ code compiler, by making it versatile, reusable, as well as simple to upkeep.

Abhishek Sharma

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